- Why bulk collect is faster in Oracle?
- What is Pragma Autonomous_transaction?
- What is difference between raise and raise application?
- Does Raise_application_error rollback?
- What is a pragma in Oracle?
- What is meant by exception?
- What is Pragma Exception_init?
- What is Raise_application_error?
- What is Sqlerrm?
- How many types of Pragma are there in Oracle?
- Is commit needed after insert?
- Can we commit after rollback?
- What is Pragma Serially_reusable and why is it used?
- What is mutating in the trigger?
- What is a user defined exception?
- How do you drop a procedure?
- What is Pragma Restrict_references in Oracle?
- What is autonomous transaction?
- What is Sqlcode and Sqlerrm in Oracle?
- Can we commit inside a trigger?
Why bulk collect is faster in Oracle?
The SQL engine retrieves all the rows and loads them into the collection and switches back to the PL/SQL engine.
All the rows are retrieved with only 2 context switches.
The larger the number of rows processed, the more performance is gained by using a bulk collect..
What is Pragma Autonomous_transaction?
The AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION pragma changes the way a subprogram works within a transaction. A subprogram marked with this pragma can do SQL operations and commit or roll back those operations, without committing or rolling back the data in the main transaction. … They pass information to the compiler.
What is difference between raise and raise application?
RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR is a standard built-in procedure by Oracle that raises an error with number and user understandable error message. … Raise_application_error shows application specific error message. You cannot re-raise it.
Does Raise_application_error rollback?
Inside a trigger a RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR does not perform a ROLLBACK, it aborts the current operation, i.e. a single UPDATE/INSERT/DELETE. … A Rollback reverts all changes within current transaction (or up to given Savepoint), that’s different.
What is a pragma in Oracle?
In Oracle PL/SQL, PRAGMA refers to the compiler directive and it is used to provide an instruction to the compiler. PRAGMA are processes at compile time, not run time. They do not affect the meaning of program, they simply convey information to the compiler.
What is meant by exception?
Definition: An exception is an event that occurs during the execution of a program that disrupts the normal flow of instructions.
What is Pragma Exception_init?
PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT associates a user-defined error code with an exception. A PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT declaration may be included in any block, sub-block or package. You can only assign an error code to an exception (using PRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT) after declaring the exception.
What is Raise_application_error?
The procedure raise_application_error allows you to issue an user-defined error from a code block or stored program. By using this procedure, you can report errors to the callers instead of returning unhandled exceptions.
What is Sqlerrm?
The function SQLERRM returns the error message associated with its error-number argument. If the argument is omitted, it returns the error message associated with the current value of SQLCODE . SQLERRM with no argument is useful only in an exception handler.
How many types of Pragma are there in Oracle?
5 typesThe 5 types of Pragma directives available in Oracle are listed below: PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION: This pragma can perform an autonomous transaction within a PL/SQL block between a BEGIN and END statement without affecting the entire transaction.
Is commit needed after insert?
So yes, by default, if you’re just using INSERT , the records you insert will be committed, and there is no point trying to roll them back. (This is effectively the same as wrapping each statement between BEGIN and COMMIT .)
Can we commit after rollback?
A transaction is a sequence of SQL statements that Oracle Database treats as a single unit. … After you commit the transaction, the changes are visible to other users’ statements that execute after the commit. You can roll back (undo) any changes made during the transaction with the ROLLBACK statement (see ROLLBACK.
What is Pragma Serially_reusable and why is it used?
The pragma SERIALLY_REUSABLE indicates that the package state is needed only for the duration of one call to the server (for example, a PL/SQL anonymous block, an OCI call to the database or a stored procedure call through a database link).
What is mutating in the trigger?
A mutating table error (ORA-04091) occurs when a row-level trigger tries to examine or change a table that is already undergoing change (via an INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement). In particular, this error occurs when a row-level trigger attempts to read or write the table from which the trigger was fired.
What is a user defined exception?
User Defined Exception or custom exception is creating your own exception class and throws that exception using ‘throw’ keyword. … The keyword “throw” is used to create a new Exception and throw it to the catch block.
How do you drop a procedure?
The procedure must be in your own schema or you must have the DROP ANY PROCEDURE system privilege. Specify the schema containing the procedure. If you omit schema , then Oracle Database assumes the procedure is in your own schema. Specify the name of the procedure to be dropped.
What is Pragma Restrict_references in Oracle?
The RESTRICT_REFERENCES pragma asserts that a user-defined subprogram does not read or write database tables or package variables. The RESTRICT_REFERENCES pragma is deprecated. … Oracle recommends using DETERMINISTIC and PARALLEL_ENABLE instead of RESTRICT_REFERENCES .
What is autonomous transaction?
Autonomous Transactions. Autonomous transactions allow you to create a new transaction within a transaction that may commit. or roll back changes, independently of its parent transaction.
What is Sqlcode and Sqlerrm in Oracle?
SQLCODE and SQLERRM are Oracle’s built-in error reporting functions in PL/SQL. When an error occurs in PL/SQL at runtime: SQLCODE returns the number of the last encountered error. SQLERRM returns the message associated with its error-number argument.
Can we commit inside a trigger?
Trigger should not commit and cannot commit. Committing in a trigger usually raises an exception unless it happens into autonomous transaction. When you open connection, Oracle creates session for it.